A history of Cleveland
The history of Cleveland with a focus on the historical information relevant to the history of the Farndale family
Dates are in red.
Hyperlinks to other pages are in dark blue.
Headlines of the history of Cleveland are in brown.
References and citations are in turquoise.
Contextual history is in purple.
This webpage about Cleveland has the following section headings:
· The Farndales of Cleveland
· Cleveland, Overview
· Cleveland Timeline
· People of Cleveland
· Links, texts and books
The Farndales of Cleveland
We don’t find any evidence of Farndales in Cleveland before 1572. After 1572, we find almost all Farndales, and all Farndales who are ancestors of the Kilton lines from which I and most others descend, in Cleveland. So we have to explain how the Farndales who had become concentrated solely south of the North York Moors before the first record in 1572, came to move into Cleveland, such that they were predominantly clustered north of the North York Moors after 1572.
It is believed that Nicholas Farndale (FAR00059) and Agnes Farndale (FAR00060), who both died in Kirkleatham, were born in Campsall or thereabouts, around Doncaster, perhaps in about 1512 and 1516 respectively. If so, they were likely descended from William Farndale (FAR00038), the Vicar of Doncaster, or at least from his wider family (his brother perhaps). William Farndale junior (FAR00063) was born in say 1538, and Jean Farndale (FAR00064) in say 1540 to Nicholas and Agnes. William Farndale married Mary Atkinson at the Church of St Mary Magdalene in Campsall in 1564. Between 1564 and 1567, the family moved to Kirkleatham. We don’t know why. Maybe that was Agnes’ ancestral home. Perhaps more likely Jean had met Richard Fairly, a relatively well established fellow, whose family were Scottish, but who had more recently become associated with Cleveland and Kirkleatham. Perhaps the family saw opportunities by a move north. On 16 October 1567, Jean married Richard Fairley in Kirkleatham. The family lived generally at Kirkleatham until Nicholas and Anne’s death in 1572 and 1586, though William had by then realigned slightly eastward, to Skelton. This established the family tree for the Doncaster-Kirkleatham-Skelton Line of Farndales.
Thus, in the mid sixteenth century, the family ventured north of the North York Moors and became focused around Cleveland. If there is a town in the early recorded history of the modern Farndales, which is focal to the history of the Farndale family, it is Kilton.
The family started to be associated with the Cleveland towns and villages of Boosbeck, Brotton, Coatham, near Charltons, Great Ayton, Guisborough, especially at Kilton, Kirkleatham, Liverton, Loftus, Lythe, Middlesborough, Moorsholm, Redcar, Saltburn by the Sea, Skelton, Stokesley, Tidkinhow and Whitby.
Two Farndale families emerged around Scarborough.
By 1733, a large group of the family emerged around Ampleforth.
Cleveland is a land of hills and dales from the River Tees to Vale of Pickering. The name means “cliff-land”. The area corresponds to the former Langbaurgh Wapentake. The North York Moors national park, established in 1952, covers part of it.
The Cleveland Hills were key suppliers of the ironstone which was essential to running blast furnaces alongside the River Tees. Cleveland’s rich ore has created a significant industrial heritage arising from its central role in the nineteenth century iron boom that led to Middlesbrough growing from a hamlet into a major industrial town in only a matter of decades.
Cleveland from Jeffrey’s Large map of Yorkshire
Danby Castle and Park are mentioned in 1242. Danby Castle evolved to be the first fortified house built around a central courtyard by Sir William Latimer. It was once the home of Katherine Parr, who married Henry VIII.
The Black Death swept through Cleveland and killed two thirds of the population. New graveyards were made at Ayton, Wilton, Seamer and other places.
The Pilgrimage of Grace was a rebellion in Yorkshire following Henry VIII’s dissolution of the monasteries. Sir John Bulmer of Wilton was hanged and his wife was buirnt at the stake. George Lumley of Kiltonj was executed.
Guisborough Grammar School was founded by Robert Pursglove, the last Prior of Guisborough.
Yarm Grammar School was established.
There were signs of thje future industrial revolution in Cleveland by 1595. Sir Thomas Chaloner established alum works at Belman Banks.
The estate of Kirjkleatham and Kirtkleatjham Hall were purhcased by John Turner, whop was the brother in law of John Pepys daughter, Jane.
Marske Hall was built by Sir William Pennyman who was a Royalist. He resisted the landing ofg the Roundhead ship Rainbow, but later lost his estates as a result.
Roberyrt Conyers, a gentleman of Guisborough, was charged with ‘certain detestable arts called witchcraft’.
Local boundaries in 1832
People of Cleveland
John Wharton was born John Hall-Stevenson (21 June 1765 – 29 May 1843). He was a British landowner and MP. He was born the eldest son of John William Hall-Stevenson of Skelton. His father was the same John Hall-Stevenson (1718 to March 1785), also known as John Hall, a country gentleman and writer, who used to ride chariots on the Saltburn sands. John Wharton was educated at the Royal School, Armagh, Trinity College, Dublin and Lincoln's Inn. He succeeded his father in 1786, and inherited the ruinous Skelton Castle. In 1788 he took the surname of Wharton when he succeeded to the fortune and estates of his aunt Mrs Margaret Wharton. He then demolished the old Skelton Castle and between 1788 and 1817 built a similarly named Gothic country house in its place. He served as the Whig MP for Beverley from 1790 to 1796 and again from 1802 to 1826. By 1829 he was in debt and spent the next 14 years in the Fleet Debtors Prison, where he died childless in 1843. He had married Susan Mary Anne, the daughter of General John Lambton of Lambton, County Durham. They had two daughters who both predeceased him and was succeeded by his nephew, John Thomas Wharton.
Bolcklow and Vaughan
Bolckow, Vaughan & Co Limited was an English ironmaking and mining company founded in 1864 with capital of £2.5M, making it the largest company ever formed up to that time.
It was founded as a partnership in 1840 by Henry Bolckow and John Vaughan. In 1846, Bolckow and Vaughan built their first blast furnaces at Witton Park, founding the Witton Park Ironworks. The works used coal from Witton Park Colliery to make coke, and ironstone from Whitby on the coast. The pig iron produced at Witton was transported to Middlesbrough for further forging or casting. In 1850, Vaughan and his mining geologist, John Marley discovered iron ore, conveniently situated near Eston in the Cleveland Hills. Unknown to anyone at the time, this vein was part of the Cleveland Ironstone Formation, which was already being mined in Grosmont by Losh, Wilson and Bell. To make use of the ore being mined at Eston, in 1851 Bolckow and Vaughan built a blast furnace at nearby South Bank, Middlesbrough, to make use of the ore from nearby Eston, enabling the entire process from rock to finished products to be carried out in one place. It was the first to be built on Teesside, on what was later nicknamed "the Steel River".
Middlesbrough grew from 40 inhabitants in 1829 to 7,600 in 1851, 19,000 in 1861 and 40,000 in 1871, fuelled by the iron industry. The firm drove the dramatic growth of Middlesbrough and the production of coal and iron in the north-east of England in the nineteenth century.
By 1864, the assets of the business included iron mines, collieries, and limestone quarries in Cleveland, County Durham and Weardale and had iron and steel works extending over 700 acres (280 ha) along the banks of the River Tees.
Vaughan died in 1868. The Institution of Civil Engineers, in their obituary, commented on the relationship between Vaughan and Bolckow: "There was indeed something remarkable in the thorough division of labour in the management of the affairs of the firm. While possessing the most unbounded confidence in each other, the two partners never interfered in the slightest degree with each other's work. Mr. Bolckow had the entire management of the financial department, while Mr. Vaughan as worthily controlled the practical work of the establishment."
Chris Scott Wilson has written more about Bolckow, Vaughan & Co.
Joseph Pease was a Quaker, born on 22 June 1799 into a wealthy family. He initially worked in the wool factories at Darlington owned by his father, Edward Pease who also partnered George Stephenson in his engine factory at Walker, Newcastle, and was a board member of the Stockton & Darlington Railway where he became known as the ‘Father of the Railways’.
Joseph became treasurer of the Stockton & Darlington Railway at the age of 25. With the railway in need of expansion and a more convenient port necessary to export the harvest of the Durham coalfields, the company sought a site for a terminus on the lower Tees. Further up, the river was treacherous and almost unnavigable, only small craft of shallow draught capable of reaching Stockton and Yarm. The new port was to be called Port Darlington. In the face of heavy opposition from Stockton and Yarm industrialists, who knew a new port lower down the river would steal much of their business, it was Joseph Pease who became prime mover in lobbying parliament to grant the necessary Act for the Middlesbrough Railway Extension.
With his five sons and his brother Henry, he formed a company called Pease & Partners. By 1840 when Middlesbrough showed signs of stagnating, it was clearly in his interest as one of The Owners and as a director of Pease & Partners to attract alternative industry. The move he made was to offer Henry Bolckow and John Vaughan land on easy terms and give them letters of introduction when they started their iron business.
Joseph was elected to Parliament in 1832, representing South Durham, and became the first Quaker to sit in the Commons. He campaigned against corruption and slavery while fervently supporting human rights and religious freedom. He proposed and carried a clause in the Metropolitan Police Bill prohibiting the common pastimes of bull and bear baiting, and also sat on many committees dealing with industry. Re-elected in 1835 and 1837 he eventually resigned from parliament in 1841 because of heavy business commitments.
As the railways pushed east beyond Redcar, Pease & Partners expanded into ironstone mining. In 1853 they opened the Hutton Lowcross mine near Guisborough. Soon, they owned Upleatham, Skinningrove and Hob Hill (Saltburn) mines, between them annually producing almost a million tonnes of ore. By 1875, eight and a half million tonnes of ironstone, limestone, coal and coke were being transported, most of which was used in Teesside’s iron industry.
Joseph Pease was fond of the Cleveland coast. Shortly after retiring from parliament, in 1844 he bought several fishermen’s cottages on the seafront at Marske, demolished them then used the site to build Cliff House where his family spent their summers.
It was from there one afternoon in 1859 his brother Henry took a stroll over the sandbanks to discover the old village of Saltburn. Returning breathless, he stated his intention to build a new town on top of the cliff. With some help from brother Joseph and the Stockton & Darlington Railway, he succeeded, naming it Saltburn by the Sea.
Links, texts and books