Middlesborough

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historical and geographical information

 

 

 

  

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General Sir Martin Farndale KCB

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The Farndales of Middlesborough

 

The following Farndales were associated with Middlesborough:

 

Richard de Farndale (FAR00016)

 

John Farndale (FAR00070)

 

John Farndale (FAR00076)

 

Matthew Farndale (FAR00121)

 

Issabel Farndale (FAR00122)

 

William Farndale (FAR00125)

 

John Farndale (FAR00168), labourer in Middlesborough

 

George Farndale (FAR00215)

 

Joseph Farndale (FAR00228)

 

Henry Farndale (FAR00229)

 

Jane Farndale (FAR00251)

 

George Farndale (FAR00271), tile maker, ironstone worker and then brick-layer of Middlesborough

 

Ann Farndale (FAR00278), servant in Middlesborough (Nunthorpe)

 

William Farndale (FAR00283)

 

Elizabeth Farndale (FAR00284)

 

Richard Farndale (FAR00288)

 

Joseph Farndale (FAR00299), Cartwright and then Joiner in Middlesborough

 

John H Farndale (FAR00302), Miner of West Hartlepool who was killed aged 37 by a fall of iron stone at the Poston Mines, Ormsby, Middlesborough

 

William Masterman Farndale (FAR00312), Customs officer of Middlesborough (also referred to as a Tide Waiter of Cleveland Port)

 

George Farndale (FAR00333)

 

Annie Maria Farndale (FAR00334)

 

Joseph Farndale (FAR00350B), police sergeant in Middlesborough

 

George Farndale (FAR00350C)

 

John William Farndale (FAR00454)

 

John W Farndale (FAR00472)

 

Maria J Farndale (FAR00485)

 

William George Farndale (FAR00492), Clerk of Middlesborough who went to USA in 1907

 

Mary Jane Farndale (FAR00508)

 

Arthur Edwin Farndale (FAR00532)

 

William Leng Farndale (FAR00539)

 

Edith Emily Farndale (FAR00546)

 

John Farndale (FAR00582)

 

Annie Elizabeth Farndale (FAR00649)

 

Robert William Farndale (FAR00662)

 

James Farndale (FAR00669)

 

George W Farndale (FAR00678)

 

Henry Farndale (FAR00681A)

 

Sarah Elizabeth Farndale (FAR00693)

 

Arthur E Farndale (FAR00706)

 

Clara Farndale (FAR00713)

 

Alfred Farndale (FAR00721)

 

Dorothy Farndale (FAR00762)

 

Ethel Farndale (FAR00777)

 

Bernard Farndale (FAR00783)

 

Albert Farndale (FAR00820)

 

Ethel Farndale (FAR00831)

 

William H Farndale (FAR00840)

 

Violet Farndale (FAR00849)

 

James Farndale (FAR00863)

 

George T Farndale (FAR00871)

 

Rubina Farndale (FAR00873)

 

George T Farndale (FAR00888)

 

Frederick Farndale (FAR00898)

 

Ronald Farndale (FAR00925)

 

Lillian Farndale (FAR0933)

 

Rosalie Farndale (FAR00961)

 

Doreen Farndale (FAR00972)

 

Marion Farndale (FAR01028)

 

Michael Farndale (FAR01032)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Middlesborough

 

Early history

 

In 686, a monastic cell was consecrated by St. Cuthbert at the request of St. Hilda, Abbess of Whitby and in 1119 Robert Bruce, Lord of Cleveland and Annandale, granted and confirmed the church of St. Hilda of Middleburg to Whitby. Up until its closure on the Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII in 1537, the church was maintained by 12 Benedictine monks, many of whom became vicars, or rectors, of various places in Cleveland. The importance of the early church at "Middleburg", later known as Middlesbrough Priory, is indicated by the fact that, in 1452, it possessed four altars.

After the Angles, the area became home to Viking settlers. Names of Viking origin (with the suffix by) are abundant in the area for example, Ormesby, Stainsby, Maltby and Tollesby were once separate villages that belonged to Vikings called Orm, Steinn, Malti and Toll, but now form suburbs of Middlesbrough. The name Mydilsburgh is the earliest recorded form of Middlesbrough's name and dates from the Anglo-Saxon era (AD 4101066), while many of the aforementioned villages are recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086.

 

Other links persist in the area, often through school or road names, to now-outgrown or abandoned local settlements, such as the medieval settlement of Stainsby, deserted by 1757, which amounts to little more today than a series of grassy mounds near the A19 road.

 

Development

 

In 1801, Middlesbrough was a small farm with a population of just 25. During the latter half of the 19th century, however, it experienced rapid growth

 

 

 

The export of coal had become the railway's main business, but the staiths at Stockton had inadequate storage and the size of ships was limited by the depth of the Tees. A branch from Stockton to Haverton, on the north bank of the Tees, was proposed in 1826, and the engineer Thomas Storey proposed a shorter and cheaper line to Middlesbrough, south of the Tees in July 1827. Later approved by George Stephenson, this plan was ratified by the shareholders on 26 October. The Tees Navigation Company was about to improve the river and proposed that the railway delay application to Parliament, but, despite opposition, at a meeting in January 1828 it was decided to proceed. A more direct northerly route from Auckland to the Tees had been considered since 1819, and the Tees & Weardale Railway had applied unsuccessfully to Parliament for permission for such a line in 1823, 1824 and 1825. This now became a 11 1⁄2-mile (18.5 km) line linking Simpasture on the S&DR's line near today's Newton Aycliffe station with Haverton and Stockton, via a route that was 6 miles (10 km) shorter than via the route of the S&DR, and named the Clarence Railway in honour of the Duke of Clarence, later King William IV. Meetings held in Stockton in early 1828 supported the Tees Navigation and the Clarence Railway, but the S&DR received permission for its branch on 23 May 1828 after promising to complete the Hagger Leases Branch and to build a bridge across the Tees at least 72 feet (22 m) wide and 19 feet (5.8 m) above low water, so as not to affect shipping. Two members of the management committee resigned, as they felt that Stockton would be adversely affected by the line, and Meynell, the S&DR chairman, stepped down from leadership. The Clarence Railway was approved a few days later, with the same gauge as the S&DR. The route of the Clarence Railway was afterwards amended to reach Samphire Batts, later known as Port Clarence, and traffic started in August 1833; by the middle of 1834 Port Clarence had opened and 28 miles (45 km) of line was in use. The S&DR charged the ​2 1⁄4d per ton per mile landsale rate for coal it carried the 10 miles (16 km) from the collieries to Simpasture for forwarding to Port Clarence, rather than the lower shipping rate. By July 1834, the Exchequer Loan Commissioners had taken control of the Clarence Railway.

 

 

 

The Croft branch opened in October 1829. Construction of the suspension bridge across the Tees started in July 1829, but was suspended in October after the Tees Navigation Company pointed out the S&DR had no permission to cross the Old Channel of the Tees. The S&DR prepared to return to Parliament but withdrew after a design for a drawbridge was agreed with the Navigation Company. The line to Middlesbrough was laid with malleable iron rails weighing 33 lb/yd (16 kg/m), resting on oak blocks. The suspension bridge had been designed to carry 150 tons, but the cast iron retaining plates split when it was tested with just 66 tons and loaded trains had to cross with the waggons split into groups of four linked by a 9 yards (8.2 m) long chain. For the opening ceremony on 27 December 1830, "Globe", a new locomotive designed by Hackworth for passenger trains, hauled people in carriages and waggons fitted with seats across the bridge to the staiths at Port Darlington, which had berths for six ships. Stockton continued to be served by a station on the line to the quay until 1848, when it was replaced by a station on the Middlesbrough line on the other side of the Tees. Before May 1829 Thomas Richardson had bought about 500 acres (200 ha) near Port Darlington, and with Joseph and Edward Pease and others he formed the Owners of the Middlesbrough Estate to develop it. Middlesbrough had only a few houses before the coming of the railway, but a year later had a population of over 2,000 and at the 2011 census had over 138,000 people

 

 

 

Industrialisation

 

The Iron and Steel industry dominated the Tees area since Iron production started in Middlesbrough during the 1840s. In 1841, Henry Bolckow, who had come to England in 1827, formed a partnership with John Vaughan, originally of Worcester, and started an iron foundry and rolling mill at Vulcan Street in the town. It was Vaughan who realised the economic potential of local ironstone deposits when he discovered Ironstone in the Eston Hills in 1850. Pig iron production rose tenfold between 1851 and 1856 and by the mid 1870's Middlesbrough was producing one third of the entire nations Pig Iron output. It was during this time Middlesbrough earned the nickname "Ironopolis".

In 1875, Bolckow, Vaughan & Co opened the Cleveland Steelworks in Middlesbrough beginning the transition from Iron production to Steel and by the turn of the century, Teesside had become one of the major steel centres in the country and possibly the world. In 1900, Bolckow, Vaughan & Co had become the largest producer of steel in Great Britain. In 1914, Dorman Long, another major steel producer from Middlesbrough become the largest company in Britain employing a workforce of over 20,000 and by 1929 becomes the dominant steel producer on Teesside after taking over Bolckow, Vaughan & Co and acquiring its assets. It is possibly the largest Steel producer in Britain. The steel components of the Sydney Harbour Bridge (1932) were engineered and fabricated by Dorman Long of Middlesbrough. The company was also responsible for the New Tyne Bridge in Newcastle. The importance of the area to the steel trade gave it the nickname "The Steel River", referring to the River Tees and the transition from Iron to Steel.

 

On 21 January 1853, Middlesbrough received its Royal Charter of Incorporation, giving the town the right to have a mayor, aldermen and councillors. Henry Bolckow became mayor, in 1853.

 

On 15 August 1867, a Reform Bill was passed, making Middlesbrough a new parliamentary borough, Bolckow was elected member for Middlesbrough the following year.

 

Several large shipyards also lined the Tees, including the Sir Raylton Dixon & Company, which produced hundreds of steam freighters including the infamous SS Mont-Blanc, the steamship which caused the 1917 Halifax Explosion in Canada.

 

Middlesbrough's rapid expansion continued throughout the second half of the 19th century (fuelled by the iron and steel industry), the population reaching 90,000 by the turn of the century. The population of Middlesbrough as a county borough peaked at almost 165,000 in the late 1960s, but has declined since the early 1980s. The 2011 Census recorded the borough's total resident population as 138,400 and the urban settlement as 174,500.

 

 

Irish migration to Middlesbrough

 

The 1871 census of England & Wales showed that Middlesbrough had the second highest percentage of Irish born people in England after Liverpool. This equated to 9.2% of the overall population of the district at the time. Due to the rapid development of the town and its industrialisation there was much need for people to work in the many blast furnaces and steel works along the banks of the Tees. This attracted many people from Ireland, who were in much need of work. As well as people from Ireland, the Scottish, Welsh and overseas inhabitants made up 16% of Middlesbrough's population in 1871.

 

Middlesbrough history

 

Newport Road, 1909