Farndales and Mining

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On this page we explore the many Farndales who mined, mainly for ironstone, in Cleveland

 

 

 

  

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General Sir Martin Farndale KCB

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 The following Farndales were miners:

 

William Farndale, mine labourer in Loftus area and ironstone miner (FAR00260)

Thomas Farndale, miner in Bishop Auckland (FAR00280)

William Farndale, jet miner at Eston (FAR00283)

John H Farndale, miner of West Hartlepool for was killed aged 37 by a fall of iron stone at the Poston Mines, Ormsby, Middlesborough (FAR00302)

John Farndale, ironstone miner in Ormesby (FAR00328)

George Farndale, iron miner of Loftus (FAR00350C)

Martin Farndale of Tidkinhow for a time (FAR00364)

John Farndale, a miner of Egton (FAR00387)

 

 

The Cleveland Ironstone Mining Museum is situated on the site of Loftus Mine, the first mine to be opened in Cleveland

 

The Tees Valley was the powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution and the British Empire. Her 83 ironstone mines dispatched iron worldwide, forming the fabric of railways and bridges across Europe, America, Africa, India and Australia.

 

On August 7th, 1848, the first mine in Cleveland opened in Skinningrove. It was the first of 83 ironstone mines in the region. Ultimately, they would dispatch iron worldwide, building railways and bridges all across Europe, Africa, America, India and even the Sydney Harbour Bridge in Australia

 

 

What is ironstone?

 

Ironstone comprises iron-bearing minerals in which other elements, such as silicon, are in chemical combination. The iron content is generally low – about 30%. Two major minerals are siderite (iron carbonate) and bethierine (iron silicate). The minerals were formed biochemically on the sea floor from iron either dissolved or suspended in seawater, that was in turn derived from a nearby shore.

 

The economic value of ironstone depended on (1) the iron content; (2) the thickness of the seam; (3) the presence of shale within the seam; and (4) the content of deleterous elements, particularly sulphur.

 

The Cleveland Orefield

 

This extends over 1000 square kilometres with over 80 mines. The most important Main Seam was up to 5 meres in thickness at Eston and then thinned southwards. The Loftus Mine is less then 3 metres. The shale line where shale first appears extends across the Loftus lease, so that as mining proceeded it became necessary to separate this out as waste. The typical iron content of Loftus was about 28%, which was distinctly less than the Eston mines.

 The old ironworks at Kilton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Image result for The History of Kilton’ John Farndale

 

 

Ironstone ming at Great Ayton

 

Ironstone was an important local industry. There were three ironestone mines in the area at the time of World War 1. Griddale or Ayton Banks was a small concession operated from 1910 to 1921 by Tees Furnace Company (map reference NZ 586110). The mine worked the Peckten seam of ironstone, called after the type of fossil found in the ore. The site was not accessible even for a narrow guage railway, so an overhead cable way was constructed, carried on metal pillars supported by concrete bases, some of which can still be seen.

 

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Other mining industry

 

Alum

 

The Jurassic shales and sandstone of Cliff Ridge and Gribdale contain bands of ironstone, jet and alum, as well as whinstone. The oldest of these industries was alum. This mineral had been used since ancient times for many purposes including medicinal (as cure for haemorrhages, nits and dandruff, and other ailments). Its main uses since the middle gages were to increase the suppleness and durability of leather and in the textile industry as a mordant to make vegetable dyes fast. Alum mining has been a North Yorkshire industry since alum was first discovered in the hills around Guisborough by Sir Thomas Chaloner the younger in the 1590s. From the early seventeenth century until the 1860s it was extensively mined at Guisborough and along the East Cleveland coast. The actual extraction of alum from shale was a long and expensive process and it took an average of 50 tons of shale to produce one ton of alum.

 

In the mid eighteenth century the price of alum was particularly high and reached a peak of Ł24 per ton in 1765. It therefore became commercially viable to mine in places where this had not been the case previously. Several new mines were therefore opened including one east of Ayton at Ayton Bank, just north of Hunter’s Scar.

 

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Jet

 

Another extractive industry was jet mining. Jet mines although numerous were small and individual mines and tended not to acquire names or documentary records. During the nineteenth century hard jet fetched a good price and it was mined extensively in East Cleveland and along the edge of the moors between Roseberry and Kildale. The mines typically took the form of parallel drifts into the side of hills, with headings also driven at right angles to the original drifts at regular intervals, so that the plan of the mine looked like a chequerboard, with square pillars of rock left in place as support.

 

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Whinstone

 

When the local quarrying of whinstone first started is not known but it was well under way by the late eighteenth century.

 

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The mines at Great Ayton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Between 206 and 150 Million Years, in the Jurassic era, the rocks forming the Cleveland Hills were deposited in a warm, shallow sea, which was later the site of a river delta. Over geological time, these sediments were compacted to form mudstones, shales, siltstones and sandstones. Of importance to us is the Cleveland Ironstone Formation, in the Lower Jurassic, which is around 29 metres of shales with silty shales and with hard beds of sideritic and chamositic ironstone. There are five main iron-rich horizons, or seams, as follows from the lowest upward: Avicula, Raisdale, Two Foot, Pecten and Main Seam. Higher parts of the Jurassic sequence include the Jet Formation, Alum Shales and sometimes coal seams, all of which had an economic value.

 

Ironstone has long been exploited in the area. There are, for example, extensive heaps of slag around Rievaulx Abbey, which was supressed in December 1538. The abbey and its ironworks were acquired by the earl of Rutland who continued working the latter. By 1545, four furnaces were smelting iron ore under the management of John Blackett, vicar of Scawton. The vaulted undercroft of the refectory was used to store the charcoal used as fuel. A blast furnace was added in 1577 and a forge was re-equipped between 1600 and 1612. Local supplies of timber for charcoal were all but exhausted by the 1640s, however, and the ironworks closed. Other remains from this period are found in Bilsdale, Bransdale, Rosedale and near Furnace House in Fryup Dale. Many of these early working appear to have concentrated on the Dogger Seam.

 

There were various attempts to mine ironstone in the early nineteenth century, with ore being quarried on the coastal outcrops. The Pecten seam was discovered at Grosmont during the making of a cutting for the Whitby and Pickering Railway and the newly formed Whitby Stone Company sent a cargo of ironstone to the Birtley Iron Company in 1836. It was rejected as being of poor quality, and it took the company some time to get its product right. Nevertheless, the following year the two companies agreed a sales contract.

 

It was not until August 1850 that Bolckow & Vaughan made a trial of the Main Seam was made by quarrying near Eston. Soon the workings moved underground, using pillar and stall, and became very large scale with over half a million tons of ironstone being raised annually in the mid 1850s.

 

Around 35 mines opened between Eston, Great Ayton and Hinderwell on the coast. There was a small group of mines at Grosmont and others in Rosedale. Railways were extended to the mines, and settlements built for the labour sucked into what had been a very rural area. After the initial rush of companies opening mines, a period of consolidation was needed as iron companies absorbed smaller ventures and workings were rationalised. Marginal mines closed. This process was helped by a down-turn in trade in the early to mid 1870s. Soon, a new generation of iron works was being built on Teesside. These used Bessemer convertors to turn the iron into steel, which was increasingly in demand. By 1883, therefore, production of Cleveland iron ore peaked at six and three-quarter million tons.

The quarter century before World War I saw many older mines close, f

urther consolidation of companies and some new sinkings. Rock drills and mechanised haulages were used to increase efficiency and trim costs. Around twenty mines closed in the inter-war years. Many of the old companies were absorbed by Dorman, Long & Co. Ltd, which dominated the industry at the start of World War II. Only nine mines, all in the area between Guisborough and Brotton, survived the war. Efforts were made to make mining more efficient, diesel haulage was introduced below ground, as were compressed air loading shovels. The mines could not, however, compete with imported ore or that worked by opencast around Scunthorpe and Corby. North Skelton Mine was the last to close in January 1964.

 

 

Cleveland Ironstone Mines:

 

 

Mine

Location

Opened

Closed

Ailesbury Mine

Whorlton

1872

1887

Aysdalegate Mine

Lockwood

1863

1880

Closed 23/10/1880.

Ayton Banks Mine

Great Ayton

1910

1929

Standing 1922 to 1928. Abandoned July 1929.

Ayton Mine

Great Ayton

1908

1930

Bagnall and Co Mines

Eskdaleside cum Ugglebarnby

1862

1864

Beckhole Mine

Egton

1857

1864

Belmont Mine

Guisborough

1854

1928

Abandoned 11/11/1886. Reopened in 1907. Abandoned 20/02/1933.

Birds Mine

Eskdaleside cum Ugglebarnby

1858

1866

Birtley Mine

Eskdaleside cum Ugglebarnby

1858

1878

Blakey Mine

Farndale East

1873

1881

Boosbeck Mine

Skelton

1872

1901

Boulby Mine

Easington

1903

1934

Abandoned July 1934. Boulby Potash Mine sunk here in the late 1960s.

Brotton Mine

Brotton

1865

1921

California Mine

Eskdaleside cum Ugglebarnby

1863

1881

Carlin How Mine

Kilton

1873

1924

Part of Lumpsey until 1946.

Chaloner Mine

Guisborough

1872

1939

Part of Eston.

Cliff Mine

Brotton

1866

1881

Abandoned October 1887.

Coate Moor Mine

Kildale

1866

1876

Abandoned 19/07/1876.

Cod Hill Mine

Guisborough

1853

1865

Commondale Mine

Commondale

1863

1876

Craggs Hall Mine

Brotton

1871

1893

Easington Mine

Saltburn

1877

See also: Port Mulgrave

East Rosedale Mine

Rosedale East Side

1866

1926

Esk Valley Mine

Egton

1859

1883

Eskdale Mine

Eskdaleside cum Ugglesbarnby

1906

1908

Eskdale Mine

Eskdaleside cum Ugglesbarnby

1856

1870

Eskdaleside Mine

Eskdaleside cum Ugglesbarnby

1871

1876

Eston Mine

Guisborough

1856

1950

Farndale Mine

Farndale East

1872

1897

See Blakey.

Fryup Mine

Danby

1863

1874

Farndale Mine

Farndale East

1872

1897

See Blakey.

Fryup Mine

Danby

1863

1874

Glaisdale Mine

Glaisdale

1879

Abandoned 30/03/1875.

Goldsborough Mine

Lythe

1912

1915

Grinkle Mine

Hinderwell

1872

1934

Abandoned 1934.

Grosmont Mine

Eskdaleside cum Ugglesbarnby

1858

1892

West Side – Abandoned 15/05/1886.

Hays Mine

Eskdaleside cum Ugglesbarnby

1836

1866

Hinderwell Mine

Hinderwell

1854

1862

Hob Hill Mine

Marske

1864

1874

Abandoned 17/04/1875.

Hollin Hill Mine

Lockwood

1864

1880

Hollins Mine

Eskdaleside cum Ugglebarnby

1863

1879

Hollins Mine

Rosedale West Side

1856

1879

Huntcliffe Mine

Brotton

1872

1905

Abandoned 1906.

Hutton Mine

Hutton Lowcross

1854

1867

Ingelby Mine

Ingleby Greenhow

1858

1865

Kildale Mine

Kildale

1866

1878

Kilton Mine

Kilton

1871

1963

Sinking in 1871. Closed 31/12/1963.

Kirkleatham Mine

Tocketts

1873

1885

Abandoned 31/12/1886.

Lane Head Mine

Rosedale West Side

1876

1881

Lease Rigg Mine

Eskdaleside cum Ugglesbarnby

1837

1850

Leven Vale Mine

Kildale

1864

1871

See Warren Moor.

Levisham Mine

Levisham

1863

1874

Lingdale Mine

Moorsholm

1877

1962

Liverton Mine

Loftus

1866

1921

Abandoned 1923.

Loftus Mine

Loftus

1848

1958

Abandoned 1959.

Longacres Mine

Skelton

1873

1954

Closed 17/07/1915 and reopened from 1933 until 27/11/1954.

Lonsdale Mine

Kildale

1865

1874

Lumpsey Mine

Brotton

1880

1954

Sinking in 1880. Closed 27/11/1954.

Margrave Park Mine

Skelton

1863

1874

Mirkside Mine

Eskdaleside cum Ugglebarnby

1856

1861

New Bank Mine

Guisborough

1850

1950

Normanby Mine

Normanby

1856

1898

Abandoned in 1899.

North Loftus Mine

Brotton

1872

1905

North Skelton Mine

North Skelton

1865

1964

Closed 17/01/1964.

Port Mulgrave Mine

Hinderwell

1856

1893

Postgate Mine

Glaisdale

1870

1876

Raithwaite Mine

Newholm-cum-Dunsley

1854

1858

Roseberry Mine

Great Ayton

1880

1924

Rosedale East

Rosedale Abbey

1866

1925

Abandoned 1928.

Rosedale on Coast Mine

Hinderwell

1854

1876

Rosedale West

Rosedale West Side

1860

1911

Abandoned March 1911.

Sheriffs Mine

Rosedale West Side

1874

1911

Skelton Mine

Skelton

1860

1938

Abandoned November 1938.

Skelton Park Mine

Skelton

1868

1938

Abandoned April 1938.

Slapewath Mine

Lockwood

1864

1899

Sleights Bridge Mine

Sleights Bridge

1856

1859

South Belmont Mine

Guisborough

1863

1875

South Skelton Mine

Stanghow

1870

1954

Spa Mine

Stanghow

1864

1904

Standing in 1903. Abandoned in 1904.

Spawood Mine

Guisborough

1865

1930

Closed 28/06/1930. Abandoned April 1934.

Staithes Mine

Hinderwell

1838

1860

Stanghow Mine

Boosbeck

1872

1926

Swainby Mine

Whorlton

1856

1868

Tocketts Mine

Tocketts

1874

1877

Abandoned in 1880.

Upleatham Mine

Marske

1851

1923

Upsall Mine

Upsall

1866

1927

Merged with Eston from 1870.

Warren Moor Mine

Kildale

1864

1874

Waterfall Mine

Tocketts

1892

1901

Wayworth Mine

Commondale

1866

1867

Sinking 1866 to 1867.

West Rosedale Mine

Rosedale West Side

1856

1911

Whitecliffe Mine

Loftus

1871

1884

Wintergill Mine

Egton

1871

1883

Wreckhills Mine

Hinderwell

1856

1864

 

 

Charles Dickens, Hard Times

 

Coketown, to which Messrs. Bounderby and Gradgrind now walked, was a triumph of fact; it had no greater taint of fancy in it than Mrs. Gradgrind herself.  Let us strike the key-note, Coketown, before pursuing our tune.

It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and ashes had allowed it; but as matters stood, it was a town of unnatural red and black like the painted face of a savage.  It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves for ever and ever, and never got uncoiled.  It had a black canal in it, and a river that ran purple with ill-smelling dye, and vast piles of building full of windows where there was a rattling and a trembling all day long, and where the piston of the steam-engine worked monotonously up and down, like the head of an elephant in a state of melancholy madness.  It contained several large streets all very like one another, and many small streets still more like one another, inhabited by people equally like one another, who all went in and out at the same hours, with the same sound upon the same pavements, to do the same work, and to whom every day was the same as yesterday and to-morrow, and every year the counterpart of the last and the next.

These attributes of Coketown were in the main inseparable from the work by which it was sustained; against them were to be set off, comforts of life which found their way all over the world, and elegancies of life which made, we will not ask how much of the fine lady, who could scarcely bear to hear the place mentioned.  The rest of its features were voluntary, and they were these.

You saw nothing in Coketown but what was severely workful.  If the members of a religious persuasion built a chapel there—as the members of eighteen religious persuasions had done—they made it a pious warehouse of red brick, with sometimes (but this is only in highly ornamental examples) a bell in a birdcage on the top of it.  The solitary exception was the New Church; a stuccoed edifice with a square steeple over the door, terminating in four short pinnacles like florid wooden legs.  All the public inscriptions in the town were painted alike, in severe characters of black and white.  The jail might have been the infirmary, the infirmary might have been the jail, the town-hall might have been either, or both, or anything else, for anything that appeared to the contrary in the graces of their construction.  Fact, fact, fact, everywhere in the material aspect of the town; fact, fact, fact, everywhere in the immaterial.  The M’Choakumchild school was all fact, and the school of design was all fact, and the relations between master and man were all fact, and everything was fact between the lying-in hospital and the cemetery, and what you couldn’t state in figures, or show to be purchaseable in the cheapest market and saleable in the dearest, was not, and never should be, world without end, Amen.

A town so sacred to fact, and so triumphant in its assertion, of course got on well?  Why no, not quite well.  No?  Dear me!

No.  Coketown did not come out of its own furnaces, in all respects like gold that had stood the fire.  First, the perplexing mystery of the place was, Who belonged to the eighteen denominations?  Because, whoever did, the labouring people did not.  It was very strange to walk through the streets on a Sunday morning, and note how few of them the barbarous jangling of bells that was driving the sick and nervous mad, called away from their own quarter, from their own close rooms, from the corners of their own streets, where they lounged listlessly, gazing at all the church and chapel going, as at a thing with which they had no manner of concern.  Nor was it merely the stranger who noticed this, because there was a native organization in Coketown itself, whose members were to be heard of in the House of Commons every session, indignantly petitioning for acts of parliament that should make these people religious by main force.  Then came the Teetotal Society, who complained that these same people would get drunk, and showed in tabular statements that they did get drunk, and proved at tea parties that no inducement, human or Divine (except a medal), would induce them to forego their custom of getting drunk.  Then came the chemist and druggist, with other tabular statements, showing that when they didn’t get drunk, they took opium.  Then came the experienced chaplain of the jail, with more tabular statements, outdoing all the previous tabular statements, and showing that the same people would resort to low haunts, hidden from the public eye, where they heard low singing and saw low dancing, and mayhap joined in it; and where A. B., aged twenty-four next birthday, and committed for eighteen months’ solitary, had himself said (not that he had ever shown himself particularly worthy of belief) his ruin began, as he was perfectly sure and confident that otherwise he would have been a tip-top moral specimen.  Then came Mr. Gradgrind and Mr. Bounderby, the two gentlemen at this present moment walking through Coketown, and both eminently practical, who could, on occasion, furnish more tabular statements derived from their own personal experience, and illustrated by cases they had known and seen, from which it clearly appeared—in short, it was the only clear thing in the case—that these same people were a bad lot altogether, gentlemen; that do what you would for them they were never thankful for it, gentlemen; that they were restless, gentlemen; that they never knew what they wanted; that they lived upon the best, and bought fresh butter; and insisted on Mocha coffee, and rejected all but prime parts of meat, and yet were eternally dissatisfied and unmanageable.  In short, it was the moral of the old nursery fable:

There was an old woman, and what do you think?
She lived upon nothing but victuals and drink;
Victuals and drink were the whole of her diet,
And yet this old woman would 
NEVER be quiet.

Is it possible, I wonder, that there was any analogy between the case of the Coketown population and the case of the little Gradgrinds?  Surely, none of us in our sober senses and acquainted with figures, are to be told at this time of day, that one of the foremost elements in the existence of the Coketown working-people had been for scores of years, deliberately set at nought?  That there was any Fancy in them demanding to be brought into healthy existence instead of struggling on in convulsions?  That exactly in the ratio as they worked long and monotonously, the craving grew within them for some physical relief—some relaxation, encouraging good humour and good spirits, and giving them a vent—some recognized holiday, though it were but for an honest dance to a stirring band of music—some occasional light pie in which even M’Choakumchild had no finger—which craving must and would be satisfied aright, or must and would inevitably go wrong, until the laws of the Creation were repealed?