The Farndale Timeline 2
The Modern Age
1600 to the present day
The colour code key to this page will help to navigate:
Dates in red.
Royal history in Blue.
Key National Events in Orange.
Local history impacting on Farndale history in purple.
Farndale history in green.
Links to the family trees of the Farndale Lines are in Brown.
The history up to about 1600 is a common history of all modern Farndales. From about 1600, the family continues with that common origin, but starts to grow and over time, diverge. So this second timeline tells of that divergence, and of the various Lines of Farndales, all related, but paving their own distinct courses over time. How remarkable it would have been for the early ancestors, to learn about the diverse and remarkable achievements of their later descendants. We modern Farndales, can start to envision not only our common ancestry, but our diversity through the ages which followed.
If Timeline 1 (1000 CE to 1600) evidences the depth of the Farndales’ history, Timeline 2 (1600 to date) evidences its breadth and diversity of experience.
A preliminary note about Cleveland
Timeline 1 (1000 CE to 1600) is the history of a family which emigrated out of Farndale into the wider area to the south of the North York Moors, with focused clusters around Bishop Wilton, York and Doncaster. From the mid sixteenth century the family had moved north of the North York Moors into Cleveland and we see the family focused there through the seventeenth into the early eighteenth centuries. From the early eighteenth century, the family remained predominantly focused in Cleveland but started to emigrate more widely again, for instance to the Ampleforth area and beyond.
So we have a picture of a family focused in Farndale in the thirteenth century, emigrating out of Farndale into the fourteenth century, and then moving to focus to the north around Cleveland in the md sixteenth century.
And so, we now find ourselves predominantly in Cleveland. Cleveland would find itself at the heart of the industrial revolution from the mid eighteenth century, with extensive ironstone mining, alum production and Victorian building. However in the early years it was described by John Farndale, our author ancestor, as a sylvan countryside of rural landscape, with adventurers in the North Sea (then called the German Sea), and tales of smugglers. Some of the family in the early eighteenth century would find themselves pulled to the bustling port of Whitby.
On 22 January 1599 William ffarndaill, the son of George Farndale of the Doncaster-Kirkleatham-Skelton Line was baptised in Skelton. He married Jane in about 1622 and they lived at Moorsholm and Liverton. William was the Founder of the Skelton 1 Line, from which the Great Ayton 1 Line and the Moorsholm 1 Line descend.
1599 to 1682
Skelton, Liverton, Moorsholm
1624 to 1659
1630 to 1676
Skelton, Moorsholm, Liverton
Those Farndales shown below in the timeline who are descendants of the Skelton 1 Line, can be identified by the annotation S1.
Elizabeth I, 1558-1603
The East India Company began to trade in the Far East.
Population reached 4.8 million.
The Poor Law placed legal obligation on parishes to care for those unable to work. Three classes were introduced – the able bodied poor who were offered work in houses of correction; the impotent; and persistent idlers.
Georgins ffarndayle was baptised at Skelton on 28 March 1602. He lived at Liverton/Moorsholm. George is on the direct family line of modern Farndales. See the Doncaster-Kirkleatham-Skelton Line.
The Stuart Line, 1603-1714
James I, 1603-1625
Bubonic plague outbreak in London.
Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England (though the nations remained separate with their own parliaments).
A third of the population of York died from plague.
Adoption of the Union Flag for Great Britain.
14 May 1607 - Jamestown was founded in the Virginia Colony and was the first permanent English colony in the Americas.
William Camden’s Britannia, the first county buy county survey of Britain.
John Speed’s The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain included the first set of county maps of England and Wales.
The publication of the King James Bible.
William Shakespeare died.
The Company of Adventurers of London Trading with ports in Africa.
The Thirty Years War 1618-1648
The Pilgrim Fathers sailed for America on the Mayflower to establish Plymouth Colony.
Charles I, 1625-1649
The development of Scarborough based on the benefits of ‘taking the waters’.
Population reached 5.6 million.
Public stagecoaches began to operate within a radius of about 30 miles of London.
On 29 July 1632, Richard Farndale, the son of George Farndale of the Doncaster-Kirkleatham-Skelton Line married Emmie Nellice at Liverton. Richard and Emmie were Founders of the Liverton 1 Line. They had three sons, but the eldest two sons died within about a year. Richard was church warden at Liverton Church by 1635.
Nicholas Farndale, son of George Farndaile of the Doncaster-Kirkleatham-Skelton Line was baptised in Liverton on 6 July 1634. Nicholas is on the direct family line of modern Farndales and Founder of the Liverton 2 Line (which Line preceded K1 and K2).
The Long Parliament.
The Protestation Oath required adult males to declare allegiance to the King, Parliament and the Protestant religion. About a third of the returns survive.
English Civil War (1642–1651)
Oxford became the Royalist base.
The Battle of Edgehill which was inconclusive.
All theatres closed to prevent public disorder.
Marchamont Nedham and Mercurius Britanicus.
Royalists defeated by Parliamentary troops at the Battle of Marston Moor.
The Battle of Naseby and the Battle of Langport. The last Royalist field army was decimated.
The London Corporation established to build workhouse.
January 1649 - Trial and execution of Charles I.
The Commonwealth, 1649-1653
The Battle of Worcester ended the English Civil War.
The First Anglo-Dutch War, fought mostly at sea.
The Protectorate, 1653-1660
Marchamont Nedham and Mercurius Poliuticus (platform for the Commonwealth regime)
James Farndale, the son of William ffarndaill (S1), the Skelton 1 Line), married Isabell in Skelton. They had one hearth at Moorsholm, and two sons, though the younger son died within a year. He was Founder of the Moorsholm 1 Line.
British captured Jamaica from the Spanish.
Charles II, 1660-1685
The Royal Society founded to promote discussion about scientific subjects.
The start of Samuel Pepys’ diary.
The Tenures Abolition Act ended feudalism.
A poll tax levied on all men and women over 16 years old annually (until 1697).
The first regular standing army established.
The English Navy became the Royal Navy.
On 19 November 1661, John Farndale of Whitby married Alice Peckock at Whitby Parish Church. Whilst I have not traced his parents, it seems very probable that he descended from the Farndales of Cleveland who we have already met, and this was a family who moved naturally from the Cleveland countryside to the port town of Whitby.
1636 to 1832
Whitby and around
1711 to 1827
Whitby and around
1773 to 1938
Whitby and around
Those Farndales shown below in the timeline who are descendants of the Whitby 1, 2 and 4 Lines, can be identified by the annotation W1.
The Quaker Act made it illegal to refuse to take the oath of allegiance.
The Settlement Laws made it easier to evict newcomers if a complaint was made within 40 Days of their arrival. This reduced the mobility of the poorer classes and discouraged the search for work elsewhere.
Limits to rights to claim poor relief.
The Book of Common Prayer included a prohibited marriage list.
The Hearth Tax – a shilling to be paid twice a year for every hearth or stove in all domestic buildings. From 1663, hearths were listed.
George Farndale was baptised at Liverton on 10 August 1662.
The first turnpike road was authorised for a section of the Great North Road.
The Conventicle Act forbade religious meetings of more than 5 people to discourage on conformity.
The Second Anglo Dutch War, 1664 to 1667.
Impressment into the navy was officially authorised.
The Oxford Gazette (later the London Gazette).
The Great Plague in London killed over 60,000.
Great Fire of London, 1666
The Burial in Wool Act required woollen shrouds to be used.
The earliest ships’ muster books.
John Milton’s Paradise Lost.
The population reached 5.7 million.
Establishment of a Board of Customs.
1672 to 1674
The Third Anglo Dutch War – the army was increased to 10,000.
John Ogilby’s Britannia Illustrata included 100 strip maps of roads in England and Wales.
On 4 October 1675 Richard ffarndaill, a Yeoman of Brotton, married Martha Sawer. This seems to have been the first association of the family with Brotton, and perhaps of Kilton. He Founded the Brotton 1 Line.
Headstones began to be widely used to mark a place of burial.
The Great Comet first identified by telescope.
On 31 October 1681, the administration of the estate of George ffarndell (son of William ffarndaill (S1), the Skelton 1 Line), late of Stockton, who died intestate, was granted to his widow, Merilia. George had founded the Great Ayton 1 Line.
The first settlers arrived in Pennsylvania.
Travels of Celia Fienes provide detailed information on certain English towns.
The Great Frost – a frost fair held on the Thames.
James II, 1685-1689
The Bloody Assizes in the south west.
The Settlement Act of 1662 amended so that it was necessary to establish settlement by occupying property valued at over £10 per annum for more than 40 days.
The Glorious Revolution.
George Farndale married Alice Petch at Loftus on 19 April 1688.
William III and Mary, 1689-1702
Legislation to encourage the consumption of gin rather than French brandy.
The Battle of the Boyne.
William is the Founder of The Kilton 2 Line which branches into a significant part of the modern Farndale family (the lines with ** are contemporary lines which still have family members alive today):
1690 to 1841
Skelton, Brotton, Liverton, Kilton, Lythe, Whitby
1739 to 1833
Loftus, Whitby, Brotton
1772 to 1917
Loftus, Brotton, Whitby, Marske, Middlesbrough
The George Farndale part of the Loftus 2 Line **
1843 to Date
Loftus, Brotton, Middlesbrough, Liverton and more widely
1796 to Date
Stockton, Guisborough, Rothbury, Northumberland
1814 to Date
Stockton, Middlesbrough and more widely
1914 to 1944
1932 to Date
California, Oklahoma, Arizona, Washington
1934 to 1966
1913 to Date
Those Farndales shown below in the timeline who are descendants of the Kilton 2 Line, can be identified by the annotation K2.
The Massacre at Glencoe.
The Royal Hospital at Chelsea was established.
The Bank of England founded by Royal Charter.
1695 to 1699
Large scale emigration from Scotland following famine. Many settled in Ireland.
County Sheriffs were required to compile poll books of voters.
A Window Tax replaced the Hearth Tax and led to widespread bricking up of windows.
Paupers were required to wear badges.
Waymarkers were inscribed on roads.
The first slave ship sailed from Liverpool.
The Standing Army was limited to 7,000 ‘native born’ men.
George Farndale, the son of Nicholas Farndale, the Liverton 2 Line (which Line preceded K1), church warden in Loftus, was fined 1s by the jury of the manor court of north Loftus for letting his horse go on to the Common.
The population reached 6 million.
Queen Anne, 1702-1714
First daily newspaper, the Daily Courant, published in Fleet Street – it later merged with the Daily Gazetteer.
Marlborough's victory at the Battle of Blenheim, 1704
A Deeds Registry was established in Wakefield containing over a million records of property ownership, followed by records in the East Riding in 1708 and North Riding in 1735.
John Farndale son of Nicholas Farndale, of the Liverton 2 Line (which Line preceded K1 and K2), married Elizabeth Bennison at Brotton on 5 February 1705. By then he was living in Kilton and was one of the first members of the family, with his brother George Farndale (Founder of the Kilton 2 Line), to live in Kilton. John and Elizabeth were the Founders of the Kilton 1 Line, a core hub for the development of the history of the wider family.
John is the Founder of the Kilton 1 Line, which branches into a very significant part of the modern Farndale family (the lines with ** are contemporary lines which still have family members alive today):
1680 to 1973
Kilton, Brotton, and more widely over time
1743 to 1797
1753 to 1790
1788 to Date
Whitby, Danby, Egton, Goathland, Loftus, York and more widely
1793 to 1923
Birregurra and Victoria, Australia
1795 to 1953
Great Ayton, Bishop Auckland, Barrow and more widely
1795 to 2005
Great Ayton, Guisborough, Middlesbrough
1822 to 1989
Bishop Auckland, Newcastle
1827 to 1984
Coatham, Marske, Redcar
1836 to Date
Ontario via the Crimean War
1845 to 1992
Tidkinhow, Alberta and more widely
1850 to 1974
Craggs, Brotton and more widely
1875 to Date
Gillingwood, Richmond, Darlington
The John Farndale part of the Loftus 2 Line **
1848 to Date
Loftus, Northallerton, Liverton, Moorsholm
1883 to 1928
Jarrow and South Shields
1922 to Date
Wetherby, Thirsk, Northallerton
1834 to Date
Hartlepool and more widely
1890 to 1934
Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin
1885 to Date
1897 to Date
Wensleydale and more widely
1940 to Date
Wales particularly Glamorganshire
1886 to Date
1907 to Date
London and Sussex
1911 to Date
London, Bedford, Northampton, Essex
1921 to Date
The Robert Farndale part of the Wakefield 1 Line **
1885 to date
Wakefield and more widely
1894 to Date
Thirsk, Northallerton, Richmond
The Thomas Farndale part of the Wakefield 1 Line
1839 to 2002
Wakefield and more widely
1849 to 1993
Loftus, Danby, Whitby and more widely
1909 to Date
Nottingham and more widely
1914 to Date
1947 to Date
Wide geographical spread
1909 to Date
1904 to 1943
South Shields, Bradford
1919 to Date
New Zealand, particularly Masterton
1940 to Date
Cambridge, London, Middlesex
1871 to 1912
1866 to Date
London and more widely
1886 to Date
Leicester, Nottingham and more widely
1916 to 1945
Those Farndales shown below in the timeline who are descendants of the Kilton 1 Line, can be identified by the annotation K1.
The Act of Union established the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Lewis Carrol stayed in Whitby on many occasions. It is thought that he drew his inspiration for his poem ‘The Walrus and the Carpenter’ from the nearby village of Sandsend, on the coast to the north west of Whitby.
The Walrus and the Carpenter Walked on a mile or so, And then they rested on a rock Conveniently low: And all the little Oysters stood And waited in a row.… The time has come,' the Walrus said, To talk of many things: Of shoes — and ships — and sealing-wax — Of cabbages — and kings — And why the sea is boiling hot — And whether pigs have wings.' But wait a bit,' the Oysters cried, Before we have our chat; For some of us are out of breath, And all of us are fat!' No hurry!' said the Carpenter. They thanked him much for that. … O Oysters,' said the Carpenter, You've had a pleasant run! Shall we be trotting home again?' But answer came there none — And this was scarcely odd, because They'd eaten every one."
The earliest artillery muster rolls.
The coldest winter for centuries.
Poor harvests across Europe led to bread riots in Britain.
Thomas Newcomen’s steam driven piston engine provided efficient pumping of mines.
The Treaty of Utrecht – Spain ceded Gibraltar and France ceded Newfoundland to Britain.
The House of Hanover
George I, 1714-1727
Jacobite Rebellion of Fifteen, 1715
The first factory opened in Derby, producing silk.
The South Sea Bubble, 1720.
The Black Act added 50 capital offences to the penal code including some forms of poaching.
Knatchbull’s Act enabled workhouses in parishes.
Daniel Defoe’s A Tour through the whole island of Great Britain.
George II, 1727-1760
George II was born in Hanover the son of George I and Sophia of Celle. He married Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1705.
Vitus Johanssen Bering reached Alaska.
The first parliamentary acts to curb the consumption of gin.
The first seaside towns appeared in Brighton and Margate.
Charles ‘Turnip’ Townsend promoted crop rotation.
Unmarried mothers were expected to name the father of their child under oath during a Bastardy Examination.
Latin was replaced by English in public records.
The invention of the flying shuttle revolutionised weaving.
Elias Farndale was born, perhaps around Thirsk, in or about 1733. He married Elizabeth Raper at Thirsk on 28 February 1753. He is Founder of the Ampleforth 1 Line. Because I have not yet ben able to identify his parents, I cannot directly link him, and his descendants into the wider family. It is possible he was not related to the Farndales who arrived in Cleveland by about 1567. However the fact that I have only found evidence of Farndales in the immediate centuries after 1567 in Cleveland, means that I think it is highly probable that Elias (and therefore his descendants) are somehow linked to the families in Cleveland who we know about in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In other words Elias is probably descended from the known family above, but we have just not yet managed to prove that or establish exactly how he links in. There is a ‘missing link’ here, but it is still probable that he is part of the same family we have met above.
So, Elias is the Founder of the Ampleforth 1 Line which branches into a significant part of the modern Farndale family (the lines with ** are contemporary lines which still have family members alive today):
1728 to Date
Ampleforth and more widely
1788 to Date
Bishop Wilton and more widely
1826 to Date
Leeds and around
1849 to 1993
Stockton and more widely
1927 to Date
South Australia, Northern Territory
1936 to Date
Thornaby and more widely
1875 to 1948
Wetherby, York, Northallerton
1910 to Date
Bradford and around
1870 to 1933
Norwich and area, and New Zealand
1911 to Date
1912 to 1945
Uxbridge and area
Those Farndales shown below in the timeline who are descendants of the Ampleforth 1 Line, can be identified by the annotation A1.
Jethro Tull published essays on improving farming including the use of the seed drill.
Jethro Tull's seed drill
Jethro Tull (1674 – 21 February 1741, New Style) was an English agricultural pioneer from Berkshire who helped bring about the British Agricultural Revolution. He perfected a horse-drawn seed drill in 1701 that economically sowed the seeds in neat rows. He later developed a horse-drawn hoe. Tull's methods were adopted by many great land owners and helped to provide the basis for modern agriculture. This revolutionized the future of agricultural success.
The Hawkhurst smugglers were active across south east England.
The Great Frost in Britain
The War of Jenkins' Ear, with Spain, 1739 to 1740. Britain went to war with Spain over Captain Jenkins’ ear, claimed to have been cut off in a skirmish at sea.
Formation of Methodist Societies around London.
Dick Turpin, highwayman, hanged at York.
Richard "Dick" Turpin (1705 – 7 April 1739) was an English highwayman whose exploits were romanticised following his execution in York for horse theft. Turpin may have followed his father's profession as a butcher early in life, but, by the early 1730s, he had joined a gang of deer thieves and, later, became a poacher, burglar, horse thief and killer. He is also known for a fictional 200-mile (320 km) overnight ride from London to York on his horse Black Bess, a story that was made famous by the Victorian novelist William Harrison Ainsworth almost 100 years after Turpin's death. Turpin's involvement in highway robbery followed the arrest of the other members of his gang in 1735. He then disappeared from public view towards the end of that year, only to resurface in 1737 with two new accomplices, one of whom he may have accidentally shot and killed. Turpin fled from the scene and shortly afterwards killed a man who attempted his capture. Later that year, he moved to Yorkshire and assumed the alias of John Palmer. While he was staying at an inn, local magistrates became suspicious of "Palmer" and made enquiries as to how he funded his lifestyle. Suspected of being a horse thief, "Palmer" was imprisoned in York Castle, to be tried at the next assizes. Turpin's true identity was revealed by a letter he wrote to his brother-in-law from his prison cell, which fell into the hands of the authorities. On 22 March 1739, Turpin was found guilty on two charges of horse theft and sentenced to death; he was executed on 7 April 1739.
William Farndale (K2), the Founder of the Loftus 1 Line, was baptised in Skelton on 3 January 1739. He married Hannah Toes at Lythe Parish Church in 1761 and was elected and sworn as a constable for Loftus in 1781.
The Watchmen of the North
Law enforcement and policing during the 1500's, and earlier, were not administrated nationally, instead they were organised by local communities such as town authorities. Within local areas, a constable could be attested by two or more Justices of the Peace, a procedure that had its roots in an Act of 1673. From the 1730s, local improvement Acts made by town authorities often included provision for paid watchmen or constables to patrol towns at night, while rural areas had to rely on more informal arrangements. In 1737, an Act of Parliament was passed "for better regulating the Night Watch" of the City of London which specified the number of paid constables that should be on duty each night. Henry Fielding established the Bow Street Runners in 1749; between 1754 and 1780, Sir John Fielding reorganised Bow Street like a police station, with a team of efficient, paid constables.
The death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI in 1740 led to the European War of Austrian Succession in which the British and Dutch supported Marie Theresa’s claim to the Austrian throne against the Prussians and French. George II personally led his troops at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, becoming the last British monarch to lead his troops into battle.
Press gang in the eighteenth century
George Farndale was buried at Skelton on 20 December 1740.
The Foundling Hospital opened in London, with outposts elsewhere across the country.
Dr William’s Library recorded a general register of births of Protestant Dissenters of the Three Denominations of Baptists, Presbyterians and Independents.
In January 1742, Giles Farndale, son of Thomas Farndale (W1), the Whitby 1 Line died on board HMS Experiment. Giles was a press ganged sailor in the Caribbean, who served on HMS Experiment and almost certainly fought in the battle for Cartagena de Indias, during the War of Jenkins’ Ear.
The ‘Experiment’ was commissioned under Captain Hughes at Deptford between Mar and Jun 1740. On 29 Jun 1740 the ‘Experiment’ was at The Nore (see below), where Giles Farndell (or Farndale; he is listed under both names in different Muster Books), came on complement. From there she sailed for Port Royal, Jamaica (see below) where she arrived on 15 Sep 1740. From there until June 1741 the ship was either in Port Royal, at sea, or in Cartagena.
Port Royal provided a safe harbour initially for privateers and subsequently for pirates plying the shipping lanes to and from Spain and Panama. Buccaneers found Port Royal appealing. By the 1660s the city had, for some, become a pirate utopia and had gained a reputation as the "Sodom of the New World", where most residents were pirates, cutthroats, or prostitutes.
The ship was part of a squadron sent to the Caribbean to support Admiral Vernon's operations against the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. Vernon was also famous for introducing grog, a mixture of rum and water, to his sailors to prevent scurvy and drunkenness. He earned the nickname of "Old Grog" because he wore coats made of grogram cloth.
Vernon suffered his most humiliating defeat in March 1741, when he led a large amphibious operation against the port of Cartagena de Indias in Colombia. Despite having a superior naval and land force, he was unable to overcome the strong Spanish defences led by Blas de Lezo, and was forced to withdraw after losing thousands of men to disease and combat.
The battle of Cartagena de Indias was a major naval and land engagement that took place in March 1741, during the War of Jenkins' Ear. It was part of Admiral Vernon's attempt to capture the Spanish port city of Cartagena de Indias, which was a key trading and military centre in the Caribbean. Vernon had a large force of 29 ships of the line, 22 frigates, 71 sloops-of-war, 80 troop ships, and 50 merchant ships, carrying about 12,000 soldiers and 15,000 sailors. He also had the support of 4,000 colonial troops from Virginia and Jamaica. The Spanish defenders were led by Admiral Blas de Lezo, a veteran officer who had lost an eye, an arm, and a leg in previous battles. He had only 6 ships of the line and about 2,700 soldiers and 600 sailors, but he also had the advantage of strong fortifications around the city and the bay. He also had the help of 600 Indian archers and some local militia. The battle lasted for more than two months, and involved several naval and land attacks by the British, as well as counterattacks by the Spanish. The British managed to capture some of the outer forts and batteries, but they failed to breach the main defences of the city. They also suffered heavy losses from disease, especially yellow fever and malaria. The British finally gave up on 20 May 1741, after a failed assault on the Castillo San Felipe de Barajas, the largest fort in the city. They retreated with about 9,500–11,500 dead and 7,500 wounded. The Spanish lost about 800 dead and 1,200 wounded.
HMS Experiment capturing a French Privateer in 1757
The Jacobite Rebellion of Forty Five. The Jacobite Rebellion of 1745, in which Charles Edward Stuart (‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’) landed in Scotland and marched with a Highland army into England, was defeated at Culloden in 1746 and Scottish opposition brutally suppressed by George’s second son Prince William, Duke of Cumberland.
Battle of Culloden, 1746 - Scots defeated at the Battle of Culloden. Duke of Cumberland, the King's 2nd son, ruthlessly represses the rebels and Scottish traditions.
A tax was imposed on all horse drawn carriages.
The population of Great Britain reached 6.5 million.
Whitby in about 1750
On 11 February 1750, William Farndale married Mary Taylor at Liverton. William and Mary founded the Kilton 3 Line. He was a farmer at Craggs, a farm later associated with the Farndale family and particularly the Craggs Line.
The Army introduced Regimental numbers instead of being named after the colonel in command and were soon given official titles such as the “King’s Own”.
Estates forfeited by the Jacobites were bestowed to the Crown.
14 September 1752, England and Wales adopted the Gregorian calendar.
The Bow Street Runners were appointed to patrol London’s streets.
The Licensing Act required the recording of full registers of victuallers, to be kept by the Clerk of the Peace as Quarter Sessions.
The Harbour at Whitby in the eighteenth century
On 10 November 1753, John Farndale, the son of Thomas and Sarah Farndale (W1), and Founder of the Whitby 2 Line, was a seaman named in a list of 42 of the crew of ‘The Friendship of Whitby’ when James Cook was Mate (later the famous Captain Cook). John would be about 42 years old.
Ship: "Friendship" of Whitby, owned by John Walker, Grape Lane, Whitby. Richard Allerton, Master, James Cook, Mate. John Farndill, Seaman, 45 years old, Whitby, served seven months 12 days, 30 March 1752 to 12 May 1753. Paid 8/4d muster dues. Prior to this he sailed with Robert Easton of London, but the name of ship is not given. No ship of James Peacock appears in Whitby records, but the name Peacock appears often as crew member in the muster rolls. In fact there was a Captain Peacock still living in Whitby in 1984.
The Friendship of Whitby was a collier ship that carried coal and other goods between London, Newcastle, and Norway. On March 30, 1752, the ship sailed from Whitby to London, where it arrived on April 9. It then sailed to Newcastle, where it arrived on April 18. It then sailed to Norway, where it arrived on May 3. It then returned to Newcastle on May 12, and then to Whitby on May 17.
There also a record that John Farndill sailed on the Three Brothers between 21 November 1751 to 7 January 1752:
Hardwicke’s Marriage Act required marriages to take place in the parish where either bride or groom had been born. Parties to a marriage were required to be 21 years old or have parental consent and marry in a licensed church.
The first printed Army Lists.
Elias Farndale Junior (A1)(the pioneer of the Ampleforth 1 Line) was baptised in Thirsk. He married Dorothy Heseltine on 14 June 1785 at Ampleforth. By 1788, they lived at Windgate Farm, which may be Windy Ridge at Yearsley. There is also a resolution of a land dispute in 1835 which referred to land of Elisha Farndale in that area and near Gilling Moor. There is also reference to Coxwold, which is nearby. Elias and Dorothy had three sons, who each had sizeable families.
The Seven Years' War against France, 1756-1763
The Black Hole of Calcutta, 1756
Clive secured Bengal at the Battle of Plassy, India, 1757
The start of privateering from Alderney.
The Militia Act revived county militias. 30,000 men were raised between 1757 and 1763.
Capture of Quebec by General Wolfe
The industrial revolution began about here.
Robert Bakewell began pioneering innovative agricultural practices including the selective breeding of sheep.
George III, 1760 - 1820
The Parliamentary Enclosure Acts between 1750 and 1845 legalised the enclosure of landowners’ property, transforming the countryside.
The Bridgewater Canal opened, followed by a period of canal building.
John Harrison’s chronometer allowed the determination of longitude at sea.
Records were required to be kept in metropolitan parishes of parish poor infants.
Mortimer’s Universal Directory listed retail shops in London.
William Dade, a Yorkshire clergyman, started the practice to keep detailed parish registers, which practice spread.
James Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny.
Lloyds Register of Shipping.
Hanway’s Act required all pauper children under 6 from metropolitan parishes to be sent to school in the countryside, separating the children from their parents.
On 24 September 1766, William Farndale, son of William and Abigail Farndale, (K1), the Kilton 1 Line married Elizabeth Barry at Whitby. He was a master mariner, sailing colliers in Whitby (like his Whitby 4 Line relatives). Maybe the Whitby 4 Line is more closely related here? William and Elzabeth were Founders of the Whitby 3 Line. His son, Robert Farndale, was a ship’s carpenter, but died in 1796 aged only 23.
The area which Tony has kindly highlighted with a red square shows the village of Kilton at that time. So this was Kilton at the time of John Farndale (“Old Farndale of Kilton”).
The smaller red square shows Kilton Hall at the end of the street. The oblong red shapes show the five houses on each side of the street, which are described by John Farndale in his writings. The yellow squares highlight other houses, scattered elsewhere across the village.
The Kilton of that earlier age, the age of Old Farndale of Kilton, was a time when Kilton flourished, and where our family that has lived at Kilton estate upwards of two hundred years were living in Kilton in large numbers. Indeed as well as the Kilton 1 Farndales, there were other Farndales of the Kilton 2 Line and the Kilton 3 Line.
Captain James Cook claimed New Zealand for Britain.
Richard Arkwright patented his water frame.
Captain Cook landed in Botany Bay.
A rise in grain prices saw the potato surpassing bread as the staple of the working man’s diet.
First water powered mills begin the age of mass production in factories.
The first Navy Lists were published.
Publication of the first Morning Post.
The Boston Tea Party, 1773
Captain Cook reached Antarctica.
The Madhouse Act required all ‘madhouses’ to be licensed, and aimed to counter abuses including imprisonment of rejected spouses. The Act remained in force until 1959.
Watt’s steam engine was patented.
The American War of Independence, 1775-1783
The Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776
An Act which allowed decommissioned ships to be used as prison hulks.
A tax was imposed on male servants.
James Cook and George Vancouver were the first Europeans to reach British Columbia.
Louis XVI of France declared war on Britain.
On 27 January 1778, George Farndale the second son of Old Johnny Farndale (“Old Farndale of Kilton”) and Grace nee Simpson, (K1), the Kilton 1 Line, married Mary Stephenson in Skelton. George was a butcher in Brotton. George and Mary founded the Brotton 2 Line.
The Butcher of Brotton by 1778
In the late eighteenth century, the Skinningrove coastline was raided by an American privateer captained by Paul Jones. Paul Jones was a Commodore in the American navy, born in Scotland. After raiding the Cumberland coast he was determined to plunder Whitby, then a wealthy port. He appeared off Skinningrove, fired into the village and then sent his men ashore on a raiding party before heading for Whitby. His ship was fired upon by soldiers who manned a battery above where the Spa now stands, but their cannon exploded and hurled two soldiers to their death onto the rocks below.
On 20 September 1779, the bailiffs of Scarborough sent an urgent message to Bridlington to say that a hostile squadron of ships, captained by the notorious Paul Jones, had been sighted. Three days later four vessels - Bonhomme Richard, Alliance, Pallas and Vengeance - entered the bay off Sewerby between Bridlington and Flamborough Head, causing the local people to hide their valuables and take shelter. But Jones was not interested in small gains - he was after a much bigger prize. A fleet of English merchantmen was moving along the coast, protected by two men-o'-war, the Seraphis and Countess of Scarborough, and they were trying to reach Scarborough harbour for protection by cannons positioned in Scarborough Castle. They didn't make it.
In spite of Jones' superior strength and firepower, the two English ships fought bravely and indeed, the Seraphis was more manoeuvrable than Jones' Bonhomme Richard. Crowds stood on Filey cliffs to watch this most remarkable of sea battles, with Bonhomme Richard ramming the Seraphis until the two were locked in what was described as a deadly embrace. The crews then engaged in hand-to-hand fighting and close cannon fire. Although the Countess of Scarborough was beaten, the gallant Seraphis continued to inflict severe damage on the Bonhomme Richard, so much so that the ship's master gunner hauled down her flag. But Jones fought on until fire from other American vessel, followed by a cruel explosion on Seraphis caused her master, Captain Pearson, to surrender.
Jones then abandoned the Bonhomme Richard with many injured crewmen still on board, and commandeered the Seraphis to claim victory. For more than 36 hours, Jones tried to save his stricken ship but, badly holed and damaged by fire, she sank on September 25 with her pennant still fluttering. Paul Jones watched her sink, thus making this the only known occasion when a maritime commander won a battle and then left the scene in a beaten ship. Some reports say Jones left his injured crew members to go down with her.
Methodist registers began.
The Gordon Riots in London protested against the Catholic Relief Act.
Gilbert’s Act allowed parishes to form unions to maintain workhouses for the elderly and infirm.
The Stamp Duty Act introduced tax on baptisms, marriage and burials (not paupers).
The volcano Laki erupted in Iceland which had catastrophic effects on European weather and caused many deaths.
The Treaty of Paris created the United States.
The invention of the threshing machine.
The first mail coaches were introduced.
A Game Tax was levied on all qualified to kill or sell game.
Taxes introduced on owners of hoses used for transport or racing.
William Pitt was Prime Minister, 1784-1801
First edition of The Times.
A tax was imposed on female servants.
John Farndale son of John and Hannah Farndale (who had sailed with James Cook) (W1), the Whitby 2 Line, was a weaver. On 9 July 1787, regarding his ‘runaway’ apprentice: John Sanderson, Apprentice to John Farndale, Weaver of Lofthouse, Yorkshire; he is stout made, a little pitted with the small pox, dark brown hair, and has a bald spot on the top of his head, occasioned by a fall; he had on when he went off, a blue jacket, a yellow striped waistcoat, leather breeches, and brown and white mottled stockings. If the said Apprentice will return to his Master, he will be kindly received; and any person or persons harbouring or employing him after this public notice, will be prosecuted with the utmost vigour, and any person giving notice of the said John Sanderson to the said John Farndale, will be handsomely rewarded (The Newcastle Courant, 28 July 1787).
A penal colony was established in Botany Bay in Australia.
The French Revolution began.
The invention of a new surfacing treatment for roads by John McAdam.
Thomas Paine’s Rights of Man was published.
The Canada Act divided Canada into Upper and Lower Canada.
The Universal British Dictionary in 5 large volumes gave details of counties, schools and other facilities.
By 1791 John Farndale (“Old Farndale of Kilton”), born on 28 February 1724, the son of John and Elizabeth Farndale (K1), the Kilton 1 Line, had moved to How Hill Farm on the Wharton Estate at Kilton. He had previously been a tenant on Cragg Farm, also of the Wharton Estate (see also the wider family association with the Craggs Line). In 1791, John paid £66 9s 8d for just over 83 acres in Kilton. He was also a merchant and was involved in the alum trade and he later told tales of smugglers at Cat Nab at Old Saltburn. John had married Grace Simpson on 16 April 1750.
Alum was extracted from quarried shales through a large scale and complicated process which took months to complete. The process involved extracting then burning huge piles of shale for 9 months, before transferring it to leaching pits to extract an aluminium sulphate liquor. This was sent along channels to the alum works where human urine was added. At the peak of alum production the industry required 200 tonnes of urine every year, equivalent to the produce of 1,000 people. The demand was such that it was imported from London and Newcastle, buckets were left on street corners for collection and reportedly public toilets were built in Hull in order to supply the alum works. This unsavoury liquor was left until the alum crystals settled out, ready to be removed. An intriguing method was employed to judge when the optimum amount of alum had been extracted from the liquor when it was ready an egg could be floated in the solution.
Old Johnny’s grandson, John Farndale, the Author, wrote of him: ‘My Grandfather, who was a Kiltonian, employed many men at his alum house, and many a merry tale have I heard him tell of smugglers and their daring adventures and hair breadth escapes.’
Our association with the smugglers of Cat Nab at Old Saltburn. There is more about smuggling at Saltburn and the activities along the North Sea coast in the eighteenth century in the webpage which records the writings of John Farndale.
John continued, ‘The steward always called old J Farndale to the vice-chair, he being old, and the oldest tenant. Farndale’s was the most numerous family, and had lived on the estate for many ages.’ and ‘once, a year at Christmas – they (the Squire) balanced accounts, over a bottle of Hollands gin, and after eulogising each other, the squire would rise and say, “Johnny, when you are gone, there will never be such another Johnny Farndale”. Old Johnny Farndale died on 24 January 1807.
John Farndale, the Author, who in 1870 wrote of life in Kilton in the 1790s, also wrote of Samuel Farndale, son of William and Abigail Farndale, (K1), the Kilton 1 Line: “… Near them is Samuel Farndale and Betty, his wife, and their five children, one still alive, cabinet makers and joinders, Wesleyans. They had some land, lived to be old and died in Kilton, respected.”
John Farndale, the Author later wrote of the eighteenth century Kilton, looking back in time from 1870: “No place can equal Kilton for loveliness”, standing as it does, in the midst of sylvan scenery, beautiful landscape and woodland scenery, and what a perfume of sweet fragrance from wild flowers, particularly the primrose-acres that would grace any gentleman’s pleasure ground for beauty and for loveliness. Kilton, as it is situated, is fitted only for a prince.”
He added, after listing the many farmers of Kilton, including several Farndales, Here we have chronicled something like a genealogy of a race of people once throng the streets of Kilton, but where are they now to be found? Many of them have gone to their everlasting reward, yet a few, a small few, remain unto this day. We believe Kilton had the pre-eminence of many of its neighbouring villages. We knew no poachers, no cockfighters, no drunkards, or swearers. Kilton people were church-going people, yet, on a Sunday afternoon, what hosts of young men and young women mustered for play, their song was: There is little Kilton, lies under yon hill, Lasses anew lad, come when you will; They’re witty, they’re pretty, they’re handsomely bound, A lo! for the lasses in Kilton town.
In his memoirs, John Farndale described Kilton "of great interest with a great hall, stable, plantation and ancient stronghold in ruins (Kilton Castle)". "It is still a small place" he says and he describes how many have left it and made their name.
In Impact of Agricultural Change on the Rural Community - a case study of Kilton circa 1770-1870, by Janet Dowey, she wrote The most predominant family at Kilton was the Farndales, their ancestry ages old. Its most distinguished member John Farndale wrote numerous books on the area. Kilton, the village itself had been a thriving community consisting of a public house, a meeting house, two lodging houses and a schoolhouse, from which sprang two eminent schoolmasters. A butcher's shop, a London tailor and his apprentice and eight others, a rag merchant, a shop which sold some books, pens, needles, tape and thread. Five sailors, two soldiers, two missionaries plus a number of very old people. The picture John Farndale paints is of a peaceful rural community who boasted of no poachers, no cockfighters, no drunkards or swearers. A church going people who met together on a Sunday afternoon. Kilton at that time had nearly 20 houses and a population of 140 men, women and children, a Hall, stables, plantation and the old Castle plus 12 small farms stop when John wrote these books he was speaking of a time long since gone (the early nineteenth century), he listed each family that lives lived within the village. Robert Jolly was a farmer and a staunch Wesleyan. After his death his farm was carried on awhile by his sons. This being the time of Nelson's death (1805), John goes on to say that there was great reformation in Kilton estate, "the little farms were joined together, about 150 acres each. Every farmer had to move to a new farm. The sons of Robert Jolly each moved away at this time, one became a lifeguard to George III and the other eventually became a minister. William Bulmer was another native of Kilton and married with nine children, he made his living buying and selling, but all his children moved away into 'respectable' situations."
The first Regency Crisis
War with the French Republic, 1793-1797
The Friendly Societies Act.
The Speenhamland system for poor relief was introduced offering financial assistance linked to the price of bread, but this effected the south of England.
The Quota Acts forced counties to supplement recruitment to the Royal Navy.
Food riots and widespread famine in England following poor harvests and high prices caused by the war with France.
Chaplains’ Returns recorded baptisms, marriages and burials overseas.
Edward Jenner’s first vaccination against smallpox.
The Retreat near York opened, offering a more humane approach to the treatment of persons with mental illness.
The Supplementary Militia Act raised an additional 64,000 men, by ballot, to serve in the war against France.
The Army began to record deaths of serving personnel.
John Farndale (K2) was born at Brotton on 16 March 1796. He married Elizabeth Wallace in 1827, and was a farmer, but may have suffered bankruptcy, and worked later as a labourer in an iron foundry in Stockton. He was the Founder of the Stockton 1 Line, but this family also had an association with Coatham.
John had a large family including another John Farndale(K2), born in 1829, who was a grocery warehouseman in Stockton; and George Farndale(K2), born in 1835, who was a druggist, chemist and grocer, but who also suffered bankruptcy. John also had two sons, William Farndale(K2), and Peter Farndale(K2), who were both solicitors’ clerks, and about whom we know a lot. Peter was a native of Coatham, and from boyhood worked with the firm of Messrs Faber, Fawcett and Faber in Stockton.
Introduction of income tax.
First War with Napoleon Bonaparte, 1798-1802
Battle of the Nile, 1798
Thomas Malthus’ An Essay on the Principle of Population.
On 23 April 1799 John Farndale, who may have been the son of Robert Farndale, (W1), the Whitby 2 Line, married Dinah Boyes in Loftus. John and Dinah Farndale were the Founders of the Whitby 4 Line. John Farndale was a carpenter. By 1833, Dinah was widowed and the subject of the 1837 Poor Law Valuation for Whitby. Dinah Farndale is listed in the returns for the Royal Hospital Chelsea for payment of Army and other pensions 1842-1883, so John may have served as a ship’s carpenter in the Royal Navy.
Pitt's Bill for the Union of Great Britain and Ireland into the United Kingdom.
United Kingdom population was 16.3 million.
The Health and Morals of Apprentices Act 1802 improved conditions of apprentices working in cotton mills.
The first railway steam locomotive.
Napoleon became Emperor of France.
One sixth of British men served in the army or navy.
1805 - the Battle of Trafalgar
In 1805 (it is suggested that this was when celebrating the Victory of Nelson at Trafalgar, though he would have been 14 then) John Farndale (FAR00217) fell down a well but was saved by his buckle. But for that buckle, those Farndales who are descended from John would never have been born!
1805-1815 - Second War with Napoleon, now Emperor.
John Farndale, later the author, was the second son of William Farndale (K1), the Kilton 1 Line and he was born on 15 August 1791. In 1870, in The History of the Ancient Hamlet of Kilton-in-Cleveland, printed by W Rapp, Dundas Street, Saltburn 1870 (see further below), he later wrote: "My first remembrance began in my nurse's arms when I could not have been more than 1 1/2 years old; a memory as vivid as if it were yesterday. She took me out on St Stephen's Day 1793 into the current Garth (a small enclosure) with a stick and 'solt' to kill a hare. A great day at the time”. Another time (some say, after celebrating the victory of Trafalgar, 1805) he was dangling head foremost down the draw well hanging by the buckle of his shoe. He goes on to describe a very happy childhood and he clearly adored his mother. "At this time I believe I loved God and was happy."
His parents, he said, "were strict Church people and kept a strict look out. I became leader of the (Brotton) church signers, clever in music". He had a close friend, a musician in the church choir. One day he met him and said he had been very ill and had been reading a lot of books including "Aeleyn's Alarum" and others "which nearly made my hair stand on end." His friend told him that he was going to alter his way of life and if John would not refrain from his revelries, he would "be obliged to forsake your company". "That was a nail in a sure place. I was ashamed and grieved as I thought myself more pious than he. Now I began to enter a new life as suddenly at St Paul's but with this difference, he was in distress for three days and nights but for me it was three months". He fasted all Lent and describes his torment. "How often I went onto the hill with my Clarinet to play my favourite tune."
But he was revelling again by 1815 (see below!).
In 1805 (it is suggested that this was when celebrating the Victory of Nelson at Trafalgar, though he would have been only 14 then) he fell down a well but was saved by his buckle – as he later wrote: “I remember a draw well stood near the house of my father’s foreman. One day I was looking into this well at the bucket landing, when I fell head foremost. The foreman perceiving the accident, immediately ran to the well to witness, as he thought, the awful spectacle of my last end. I had on at the time a pair of breeches, with brass buckles on my shoes (silver ones were worn by my father and others), and to his great astonishment, he found me not immersed in water at the bottom of the well, but dangling head foremost from the top of a single brass buckle, which had somehow caught hold.” Anyone directly descended from John, therefore owes their existence to a shoe buckle!
A military academy opened at Woolwich for the training of officers.
Napoleon’s attempted economic blockade of Britain.
The import and use of slaves in Britain was outlawed, but continued in the colonies.
George Farndale (K2) was baptised at Brotton on 15 March 1807. He married Ann Child in 1842. He was an early Farndale in Kilton and lived at Sykes House there. He died at only 40 from typhus fever, but Ann continued to run the farm of 60 acres with three employees after he died. His son, George Farndale, would found the Loftus 2 Line.
1808-1814 - The Peninsular War
The County Asylums Act encouraged the construction of private asylums for the mentally ill.
The Battle of Corunna
The Battle of Talavera
In 1809, John Farndale, the eldest son of Old Johnny Farndale (“Old Farndale of Kilton”) and Grace nee Simpson, (K1), the Kilton 1 Line, was a tenant farmer in Kilton. There is a detailed record in the Skelton and Kilton Terrier of John’s fields and acreage and how they were planted in 1809 which can be seen on his webpage. John Farndale grew wheat and oats and had fields to pasture and paddock and his farm was enclosed into a stack yard, Broad Garth, Farndale Barf, Bulmer Barf, Swales Barf, Ward Barf, South and North Cow Pastures, Chapel Long Close and the Lane from Kilton to Kilton Thorpe.
A ‘terrier’ is a record of filed names, with reference number, land use, acreage and rent.
John had married Jane Pybus on 23 December 1795. They had no children.
In 1809, Wiliam Farndale, a younger son of Old Johnny Farndale (“Old Farndale of Kilton”) and Grace nee Simpson, (K1), the Kilton 1 Line, was also a tenant farmer in Kilton. As with his older brother, John, there is a detailed record in the Skelton and Kilton Terrier of John’s fields and acreage and how they were planted in 1809 which can be seen on his webpage. William had married Mary Ferguson in Brotton on 20 September 1789.
William Farndale grew wheat and oats and had fields to pasture and paddock and his farm was enclosed into the homestead, Garth, Harry Duck Stank, Stank Head, Ward Fece, Carter Fence, Fece, High Pasture, Pond Close, Near Pasture, House Stank, Stank Head, Stank Head Close, Kilton Hill, Long Moor, Beck Close, Square Close and Long Pasture.
William pulled down the old Kilton Lodge, which was connected to the castle, to build a new house.
· “connected with the castle is Kilton Lodge which my father pulled down to build a new house.”
· “And now we come to our grandfather’s and father and mother, William and Mary Farndale, and their seven children’s birth place; farmers and merchants of wood, rods, coals, salting bacon; church people. And those premises are held by our youngest brother, held from generation to generation this two hundred years. Springing from this roof may be said to be forty Farndales of this last generation…..”
· “Then again I see old Cat Nab, where I have seen piled up thousands of bundles of rods for the northern pits. I can imagine I see old William Farndale and his host of men and wagons loading with rods the sloop, ‘The Two Brothers’ and after dining together at David Latter’s little public house when perhaps another vessel appeared for the next tide following and those chosen handymen failed not to be in time and on the spot when all must be done before old Neptune came creeping round, but oft time Billy and Farmer have been belly deep, yet the work must be done. This was in Old Saltburn’s prosperity, when gin could be got for a penny a glass, real Hollands. In former days there were seen oft times near Old Saltburn, two or three luggers at a time laden with contraband goods and the song of the crews used to be.”
· “We now with much pleasure return to Saltburn by the Sea, where we again view the broad expanse of the ocean, with its ever restless waves rolling towards the shore. Here stands the conic hill, Cat Neb, where formerly many ship loads of contraband goods, of every description, were landed. Round this hill my father used annually to bring thousands of corf rods to ship for the coal pits in the north, where they are not now used. What activity there was then at this place, when a vessel lay on the beach to be loaded with rods, which were brought to the seaside in waggons accompanied by eight or ten men, under the superintendence of my father, William Farndale, well known to John Wharton Esq., who by the sale of these rods received many hundreds of pounds.”
· John also wrote of his father, Pigs also, both strong and smaller breed, for many years have been improved. Sir Lawrence Dundas introduced into his district a fine small Chinese breed, and JH Wharton, Esq. presented his tenants with one each. My father’s was a fine boar pig.
Population of the United Kingdom reached 18.5 million.
First Luddite activity, in Nottingham.
Napoleon’s Retreat from Moscow
The Framebreaking Act imposed the death penalty for Luddites.
Gas lamps became widely used to light streets.
On 12 December 1813, John Farndale, son of Samuel and Elizabeth Farndale, (K1), the Kilton 1 Line married Ann Nicholson at Danby. He was an agricultural labourer at Danby End and founded the Whitby 5 Line.
James Pigot published national directories comprising information about professional people, gentry and nobles, clergy, and coach and carrier services.
The Battle of Waterloo. The names of soldiers are recorded in medal rolls.
John Farndale (K1) wrote “After the great battle of Waterloo, and Buonaparte had been taken prisoner, that glorious event was celebrated at Brotton by parading his effigy through the street and burning it before Mr R Stephenson’s hall, amidst the rejoicings of high and low, rich and poor, who drank and danced to the late hour. The author formed one of a band of musicians that played on the occasion, and he composed a song commemorating the event, which became very popular in that part of the country. Brotton bever before or since saw the like of that memorable day.”
John Farndale’s ballad to the Victory at Waterloo: Hail! Ye victorious heroes, England’s dauntless saviours, ye, Who on the plains of Waterloo, Won that glorious victory. It was a day the world may say, When Napoleon boldly stood, Upon the plains of the Waterloo, There flowed rivulets of blood. Before the foe he bravely fought, And when he’d all but won the day, Would it were night, or Blucher up, Our hero Wellington did say. But now behold in effigy, Him to whom kings such homage paid, Napoleon mounted on a mule, As though he were on grand parade, Behold with joy all England sings, Brotton too is up and gay, The band, the flag, the ball, the dance, Ne’er ceased till the break of day.
Impressment into the Royal Navy ended.
Mass unemployment followed demobilisation of the army.
First of the Corn Laws helped farmers, but disastrously impacted upon the poor.
The ‘Year without a Summer’ led to dire harvests.
Maps of most English counties published by the Greenwood Brothers.
On 10 April 1817, Joseph Farndale, son of Samuel and Elizabeth Farndale, the cabinet maker/joiner (K1), the Kilton 1 Line, married Mary Hill in Great Ayton. He was a cartwright (like his elder brother William Farndale in Guisborough) in Great Ayton. He was founder of the Great Ayton 2 Line. His brother Henry Farndale also moved to Great Ayton and founded the Great Ayton 3 Line.
On 31 July 1817 Mary Farndale, the fifth child of William and Mary Farndale (K1), the Kilton 1 Line, died at Easby Hall aged only 21. A teapot with her name and a verse on it was given by a sea captain friend and recalls her memory.
The Peterloo Massacre – 15 dead and several hundred injured.
On 20 May 1819, Henry Farndale, son of Samuel and Elizabeth Farndale, the cabinet maker/joiner (K1), the Kilton 1 Line, married Elizabeth Appleton in Great Ayton. He was an agricultural labourer in Great Ayton. He was later widowed and married Ann Richardson in Great Ayton in 1854. He was founder of the Great Ayton 3 Line. His brother Joseph Farndale also moved to Great Ayton, an agricultural labourer, and founded the Great Ayton 2 Line.
George IV, 1820-1830
The Cato Street Conspiracy was an attempt to murder all the British cabinet ministers and Prime Minister Lord Liverpool in 1820. The name comes from the meeting place near Edgware Road in London. The police had an informer and the plotters fell into a police trap and 13 were arrested, while one policeman was killed. Five conspirators were executed, and five others were transported to Australia.
How widespread the Cato Street conspiracy was is uncertain. It was a time of unrest; rumours abounded. Malcolm Chase noted that, "the London-Irish community and a number of trade societies, notably shoemakers, were prepared to lend support, while unrest and awareness of a planned rising were widespread in the industrial north and on Clydeside."
First Europeans settled in New Zealand.
Population of the United Kingdom was 20.9 million.
Michael Faraday invented the electric motor.
The Greek War of Independence attracted people from Britain including Lord Byron.
By 1822, William Farndale (A1), born about 1788 and the eldest son of Elias Farndale and Dorothy, had loved to Bishop Wilton, to the east of York. He was an agricultural labourer. He was Founder of the Bishop Wilton Line.
The requirement that either bride or groom were to have been resident in a parish for 4 weeks was reduced to 15 days.
The Ashanti War
Act to repeal the law allowing magistrates to fix wages of workmen.
Act repealing law preventing workmen seeking work from travelling to different parts of the country.
Repeal of the Combination Laws (preventing fixing of wages by 'combinations' or masters and workers) enabled workers to establish trade unions.
The opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway – the first public steam railway.
On 24 February 1825 John Christopher Farndale the Elder, son of John and Dinah Farndale, (W1), the Whitby 4 Line married Ann Ling in Whitby. He was a painter, and later a farmer and Master Mariner of Cragg, Whitby (Cragg is along the waterfront on the River Esk at Whitby). We have extensive records of the maritime exploits of his sons, William Farndale and John Christopher Farndale the Younger, who were also Master Mariners and merchant ships’ captains. You can also read about his own mercantile adventures.
White’s first commercial directory published for Hull and listing names and addresses.
On the misty gale-torn morning of 6 September 1826, crashing surf and screeching winds brought about the end of the Whitby whaler Esk. Grounded just below the low water line at Marske-by-Sea in Cleveland, 17 miles from home, less than seven hours saw her a total wreck. Spars, rigging, timbers and cargo were strewn for miles along the coast.
Greenwood’s Map of London.
The Shepherd’s Calendar, a poetic account of the cotemporary farming year by John Clare, was published.
Burke and Hare murders in Edinburgh.
On 7 June 1827, Robert Farndale, son of John and Hannah Farndale (who had sailed with James Cook) (W1), the Whitby 2 Line, who was born on 17 November 1752, was buried at St Mary the Virgin Churchyard, Whitby. There are several Whitby Farndales buried in that churchyard, though not all the graves remain.
Bram Stoker used St Mary's Church graveyard as the setting for a scene in his novel, Dracula (1897): For a moment or two I could see nothing, as the shadow of a cloud obscured St. Mary's Church. Then as the cloud passed I could see the ruins of the Abbey coming into view; and as the edge of a narrow band of light as sharp as a sword-cut moved along, the church and churchyard became gradually visible... It seemed to me as though something dark stood behind the seat where the white figure shone, and bent over it. What it was, whether man or beast, I could not tell. The graveyard is famous for its association with Dracula. There is a gravestone with a skull and crossbones, which it is sometimes claimed is the fictional Dracula’s grave, but in reality was probably the mark of a stonemason. And there is the tale of a suicide’s grave, where vampires supposedly have to reside: “He pointed to a stone at our feet which had been laid down as a slab, on which the seat was rested, close to the edge of the cliff. “Read the lies on that thruff-stone,” he said. The letters were upside down to me from where I sat, but Lucy was more opposite to them, so she leant over and read, “Sacred to the memory of George Canon, who died, in the hope of a glorious resurrection, on July 29, 1873, falling from the rocks at Kettleness. This tomb was erected by his sorrowing mother to her dearly beloved son. `He was the only son of his mother, and she was a widow.’ Really, Mr. Swales, I don’t see anything very funny in that!” She spoke her comment very gravely and somewhat severely. “Ye don’t see aught funny! Ha-ha! But that’s because ye don’t gawm the sorrowin’ mother was a hell-cat that hated him because he was acrewk’d, a regular lamiter he was, an’ he hated her so that he committed suicide in order that she mightn’t get an insurance she put on his life.”….I did not know what to say, but Lucy turned the conversation as she said, rising up, “Oh, why did you tell us of this? It is my favourite seat, and I cannot leave it, and now I find I must go on sitting over the grave of a suicide.”
Perry’s Bankrupt and Insolvent Gazette published monthly.
An Act to Regulate the Carrying of Passengers in Merchant Vessels regulated the safety of emigrants to the colonies.
The first Bobbies appointed by Sir Robert Peel.
Stephenson’s steam locomotive won the Rainhill Trials.